In rural Wales they’ve had to develop new ways of delivering HIV prevention services. HIV prevention is usually seen as a package of syringe dispersal, disposal, health care and help with drug problems, often based in drug agencies. This has worked well in urban areas where most people live within reach of needle exchanges or drug agencies. In rural areas with dispersed populations, localised schemes cannot reach drug users who live more than a few miles away. In these areas it may be more effective to separate syringe dispersal, disposal and help with drug problems.