Enforcement statistics suggest a steep rise in crack use in recent years but not to epidemic levels. Crack is commonly used in some inner city areas, generally on an irregular and non-dependent basis. The connection with black people is stronger for trafficking that for use due to the involvement of Jamaican criminals in crack distribution. Service responses are hampered by the lack of a substitute drug, by concerns over violence, and by failure to attract (especially black) users. Outreach work may be the primary service response.
Additional keywords: race / ethic groups / prostitution